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تاريخ كوريا الجنوبية منذ 1962

 

 برنامج تطوير لبنان الشمالي

 

سياسات التصدير

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International Financial Organizations which Finance Projects in Developing Countries:

The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries. It is the largest and most well-known development bank in the world and is an observer at the United Nations Development Group.[7] The bank is headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States. It provided around $61 billion in loans and assistance to "developing" and transition countries in the 2014 fiscal year.[8] 

The World Bank (French: Banque mondiale)[5] is an international financial institution that provides interest-free loans and grants to the governments of poorer countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects.[6] It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group. \

The International Monetary Fund (IMF), also known as the Fund, is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of 189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world.[1] Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes,[6] it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system. It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises.[7] Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had SDR477 billion (about $667 billion).[8]

 

Response to financial crisis (from FDD | Crisis in Lebanon)

Yet the basic playbook goes as follows:

1.  The first step is to ascertain the size of the losses of the party in distress. No lenders or investors will provide new funding to a party in distress unless they have some sense of the scope of the problem and some assurance that the rescue funds will be sufficient to solve the problem. No one is interested in throwing good money after bad.

2. The second step is to identify the source of new funding, which can be a single institution or a consortium. 

3. The third step is to allocate losses among the stakeholders in the distressed party. This typically involves wiping out equity, forcing depositors or creditors to take a “haircut” 1  (which varies by the size of the losses), and allocating new equity, partly to the rescuer and partly as compensation to creditors for their haircuts.

4. Next, bad assets are stripped out of the failing institutions and put in a separate entity (either a “bad bank” or some form of trust for the benefit of creditors or taxpayers) so the rescued entity can start over with a clean balance sheet.

5. Finally, conditions are imposed to prevent another default, protect the interests of the party providing new funds, and provide oversight and transparency so that bailout funds are used for their intended purpose. Once these steps have been completed, the deal can be closed and the distressed party can return to business as usual.

 

There are many variations of this playbook. When a systemic crisis includes multiple failures, a form of triage is used, whereby banks are divided into three categories: sound, illiquid, and insolvent. The sound banks provide liquidity to the illiquid banks, while the insolvent banks are allowed to fail. This method stops the crisis and cleans out some rot at the same time.